Pampas deer

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Taxonomy & Evolution
The Pampas deer are part of the New World deer, another term for all South American deer species. Fossil records indicate that New Word deer traveled to South America from North America as part of the Great American Interchange around 2 million years ago, following the formation of the Isthmus of Panama. It is believed that they rapidly evolved into different species, with only a few surviving today. Due to the large continental glaciers and the high soil acidity in areas where there were no glaciers, a huge part of the fossil record has been destroyed, so there is no indication what the New World deer used to look like. Fossil records begin with clear differentiation and are close to what they currently look like. The Pampas deer evolved as plains dwellers. Their direct ancestor first appeared during the Pleistocene period (the Ice Age) during the Pampean Formation.
Scientists believe the deer evolved with no culling predators because when alarmed, they stamp their feet, have a particular trot and whistle, and deposit odor. The Pampas deer share a similar gene pattern with another deer species called Blastocerus. Unique to those two species, they have two fused chromosomes.
The Pampas deer have 3 subspecies: O. b. bezoarticus that live in eastern and central Brazil, south of the Amazon river into Uruguay. O. b. leucogaster that live in southwestern Brazil, to southeastern Bolivia, to Paraguay and into northern Argentina. O. b. celer from the southern part of Argentina. They are the most rare and are an endangered species. Pampas deer are the most polymorphic mammals. This large genetic variation reflects the fact that there were millions at one time. Their current high nucleotide diversity shows that they had very large numbers even in just the recent past; so recent it is not reflected in their genes yet.
Physical Characteristics
Pampas deer have tan fur, lighter on their undersides and insides of legs. Their coats do not change with the seasons. They have white spots above their lips and white patches on their throats. Their shoulder height is 0.70m to 0.075m. Their tails are short and bushy, 10cm to 15cm long, and when they run, they lift their tail to reveal a white patch, just like white-tailed deer.
Males weight about 40kg and females about 33.5kg, so they are a small species of deer, with relatively little sexual dimorphism. Males have small, lightweight antlers that are 3-pronged, which go through a yearly cycle of shedding in August or September, with a new grown set by December. The lower front main prong of the antlers is not divided, but the upper prong is. Females have hair whorls that look like tiny antlers stubs. Females and males have different stances during urination. Males have a strong smell secreted from glands in their back hooves that can be detected up to 1.5 km away.
Biology and Behavior
Social Behavior: In Argentina, the mating season is December to February. In Uruguay, the mating season is February to April. Courtship behavior is submissive, such as low stretching, crouching, and turning away. The male initiates courtship with a low stretch. He makes a soft buzzing sound. He nuzzles the female and may flick his tongue at her, and averts his eyes. He stays near her, and may follow her for a long time, smelling her urine. Sometimes the female responds to courtship by lying on the ground.
Pampas deer do not defend territory or mates, but do have displays of dominance. They show dominance by keeping their heads up and trying to keep their side forward, and use slow, deliberate movements. When bucks are challenging each other, they rub their horns into vegetation and scrape them on the ground. They may urinate into the scrape they've made, and sometimes defecate. They rub the scent glands on their heads and faces into plants and objects. They usually do not fight, but just spar with each other, and they do commonly bite. Sparring is initiated by the smaller buck touching noses with the larger buck. Groups are not separated by gender, and bucks will drift between groups. There are usually only 2-6 deer in a group, but there can be many more in good feeding areas. They do not have monogamous pairs, nor are there harems.
When they feel they may be in danger, they hide low in the foliage and hold, and then bound off about 100-200 meters, often looking back at the disturbance. Because they bound in long flat jumps and have not been observed to run, they are not thought to be endurance runners. If they are alone, they may just quietly slip away. Females with a fawn will fake a limp to distract a predator, or if they are unsure of a situation, such as if a human appears.
They will often stand on their hind legs to reach food or see over something. They are sedentary, with no seasonal or even daily movements. They usually feed regularly during the day, but sometimes have nocturnal activity. The Pampas deer are very curious and like to explore. Although this is endearing to observers, their lack of fleeing at the site of humans makes them easier for poachers to kill.
Diet
Pampas deer have been seen eating new green growth, shrubs, and herbs. Most of the plant life they consume grows in moist soils. To see if Pampas deer compete with cattle for food, their feces were studied and compared to cattle feces. They do in fact eat the same plants, but in different proportions. The pampas deer eat less grass and more forbs (flowering broad leafed plants with soft stems) and browse (shoots, leaves, and twigs), respectively. During the rainy season, 20% of their diet consists of new grasses. They will move with the availability of food, particularly the flowering plants. The presence of cattle increases the amount of sprouting grass, which is preferred by Pampas deer, furthering the idea that the deer do not compete with cattle for food. Opposing research shows that Pampas deer avoid areas inhabited by cattle, and when cattle are absent have much larger home ranges.
Reproduction/Calves
Fawns can be seen at any time of year, but there is a peak in September and November. Females separate themselves from the group to give birth, and keep the fawn hidden away. After giving birth, the female goes into heat and usually mates within the next 48 hours. The fawns are small and spotted, and lose their spots at about 2 months old. Usually only one fawn weighing about 2.2 kg is born after a gestation period lasting over 7 months. At 6 weeks, they can eat solid food and begin to follow their mother. They stay with their mothers for at least a year, and also reach sexual maturity at about a year.
Threat of Extinction
The Pampas deer of southern Argentina once were very abundant but now considered a threatened species by the IUCN. The IUCN separates the subspecies O. b. celer in Southern Argentina as endangered. The diseases that particularly plague O. b. celer are gut parasites and food and mouth disease. Their overall decline is due in part from hunting and poaching, but also from habitat loss due to agriculture, diseases from domesticated and feral livestock, competition from more recently introduced wildlife, and general over-exploitation. (4)There is less than 1% of their natural habitat left that was present in 1900. The deer in Argentina and Uruguay have no natural predators, which formerly were cougars and jaguars. Those in Brazil still have cougars to fear. Some areas of population loss are easily tracked to poaching because of the few number of deer in an area. In the mid-1970's, 10 individuals out of a group of 16 located in Punta Medanos were killed by poachers. The rest were wiped out by extensive human activity. Lack of funding and technology have made it difficult for biologists to track and help the deer population, but donations and grants from organizations and universities in the United States have helped immensely with the situation. In 1975, there were less than 100 of subspecies O. b. celer, but by 1980 there were 400. The population has been continuing to increase, although not at that high of a rate. Some of the discrepancy is due to the fact that later they found groups they didn't know existed.
Unfortunately, local people will often blame the deer for outbreaks of disease in their livestock, particularly the disease brucellosis in cattle. In one instance, the Uruguayan government was going to kill some of their Pampas deer population. Research by field veterinarians had shown that Pampas deer rarely carry the disease, so the government gave them time to assess deer health. Funded by the Disney Conservation Fund, they were able to prove that the deer pose no threat of spreading disease to livestock.
Trade for commercial purposes is banned. They are legally protected in Argentina, and they have a private and federal reserve set aside for the deer. In some areas, strictly controlling poaching is all that was necessary to quickly increase the population size. Increasing public knowledge and controlling road building has also helped. They reproduce well in captivity, and are sometimes reintroduced into the wild.
In 2006, Global Positioning Systems were placed on 19 Pampas deer, although 8 of those did not record data. The individuals were monitored from between 4-18 days for researches to collect data on their movements, to better understand how to help them.
Relations with Humans & Culture
The Pampas deer have been harvested into the millions. Between 1860 and 1870, documents for the port of Buenos Aires alone show that two million Pampas deer pelts were sent to Europe. Many years later, as roads were built through the pampas, cars made it even easier for poachers to get to the deer. They were also killed for food, medicinal purposes, and for sport. As of 2003, there are fewer than 2,000 of them in Argentina and Uruguay. Both Argentina and Uruguay have declared the Pampas deer "natural monuments" but the hunting continues, although much less frequently now. The decimation of the Pampas deer has been likened to that of the bison of North America. Also similar to the bison, is the role they played in the life of the Native Americans of Uruguay and Argentina, being used for food, hides, and medicine. The Native Americans at first participated in the harvesting of the Pampas deer pelts for sale. Despite all that, the deer population stayed strong until the Native Americans of those countries were defeated by European settlers. The settlers brought large agricultural expansion, uncontrolled hunting, and new diseases to the deer with the introduction of new domestic and feral animals.
Some landowners have set aside some of their property as a reserve for the deer, as well as keeping cattle instead of sheep. Sheep graze much more on the land and are more of a threat to the deer. The owners that choose cattle are doing it as a service, because more money is made from raising sheep than cattle. Conservationists encourage this trend by sharing research that more edible vegetation is available on ranches with cattle and deer during times of drought than on ranches with cattle and sheep.
References
^ Gonzalez, S. & Merino, M.L. (2008). Ozotoceros bezoarticus. In: IUCN 2008. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Downloaded on 7 November 2009. Database entry includes a brief justification of why this species is of near threatened.
^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Geist, Valerius. Deer of the world their evolution, behaviour, and ecology. Mechanicsburg, Pa: Stackpole Books, 1998
^ a b c d e f g P., Walker, Ernest. Walker's Mammals of the world. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1991
^ Harris, Monica B., Walfrido Tomas, Guilherme Mourao, Carolina J. Da Silva, Erika Guimaraes, Fatima Sonoda, and Eliani Fachim. "Safeguarding the Pantanal Wetlands: Threats and Conservation Initiatives." Conservation Biology 19 (2005): 714-20

^ Moore, Don. "A Delicate Deer." Wildlife Conservation 106 (2003): 6-7
^ a b c d Villa, A. R., M. S. Beade, and D. Barrios Lamunire. "Home range and habitat selection of pampas deer." Journal of Zoology 276 (2008): 95-102
^ a b IUCN Mammal Red Data Book. Gland, Switzerland: IUCN, 1982
^ a b c d Gonzales, S., J. E. Maldonado, J. A. Leonard, C. Vila, J. M. Barbanti Duarte, M. Merino, N. Brum-Zorilla, and R. K. Wayne. "Conservation genetics of the endangered Pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus)." Molecular Ecology 7 (1998): 47-56
^ Grzimeks Animal Life Encyclopedia Mammals (Grzimek's Animal Life Encyclopedia). Vol. 15. Detroit: Gale Cengage, 2003
^ People In Nature Wildlife Conservation in South and Central America. New York: Columbia UP, 2005
^ Zucco, Carlos, and Guilherme Mourao. "Low-Cost Global Positioning System Harness for Pampas Deer." The Journal of Wildlife Management 73 (2009): 452-57
Reproductive biology of the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus): a review. Ungerfeld R, Gonzlez-Pensado S, Bielli A, Villagrn M, Olazabal D, Prez W Acta Vet Scand 2008, 50:16 http://www.actavetscand.com/content/50/1/16 http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pubmed&pubmedid=18534014
Observations on the macroscopic anatomy of the intestinal tract and its mesenteric folds in the pampas deer (Ozotoceros bezoarticus, Linnaeus 1758). Prez W, Clauss M, Ungerfeld R. Anat Histol Embryol. 2008 Aug;37(4):317-21. http://www3.interscience.wiley.com/journal/120122341/abstract?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0
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Extant Artiodactyla species
Kingdom: Animalia  Phylum: Chordata  Class: Mammalia  Infraclass: Eutheria  Superorder: Laurasiatheria
 
Suborder Ruminantia
Antilocapridae
Antilocapra
Pronghorn (A. americana)
Giraffidae
Okapia
Okapi (O. johnstoni)
Giraffa
Giraffe (G. camelopardalis)
Moschidae
Moschus
Himalayan Musk Deer (M. chrysogaster)  Siberian Musk Deer (M. moschiferus)  Dwarf Musk Deer (M. berezovskii)  Black Musk Deer (M. fuscus)
Tragulidae
Hyemoschus
Water Chevrotain (H. aquaticus)
Moschiola
Indian Spotted Chevrotain (M. meminna)  M. kathygre
Tragulus
Java Mouse-deer (T. javanicus)  Lesser Mouse-deer (T. kanchil)  Greater Mouse-deer (T. napu)  Philippine Mouse-deer (T. nigricans)  Vietnam Mouse-deer (T. versicolor)  Williamson's Mouse-deer (T. williamsoni)
Cervidae
Large family listed below
Bovidae
Large family listed below
 
Family Cervidae
Muntiacinae
Muntiacus
Indian Muntjac (M. muntjak)  Reeves's Muntjac (M. reevesi)  Hairy-fronted Muntjac (M. crinifrons)  Fea's Muntjac (M. feae)  Bornean Yellow Muntjac (M. atherodes)  Roosevelt's muntjac (M. rooseveltorum)  Gongshan muntjac (M. gongshanensis)  Giant Muntjac (M. vuquangensis)  Truong Son Muntjac (M. truongsonensis)  Leaf muntjac (M. putaoensis)
Elaphodus
Tufted deer (E. cephalophus)
Cervinae
Cervus
Red Deer (C. elaphus)  Elk (C. canadensis)  Thorold's deer (C. albirostris)  Sika Deer (C. nippon)  Barasingha (C. duvaucelii)  Eld's Deer (C. eldii)  Sambar Deer (C. unicolor)  Rusa Deer (C. timorensis)  Philippine Sambar (C. mariannus)  Philippine Spotted Deer (C. alfredi)
Axis
Chital (A. axis)  Hog deer (A. porcinus)  Calamian Deer (A. calamianensis)  Bawean Deer (A. kuhlii)
Elaphurus
Pre David's Deer (E. davidianus)
Dama
Fallow Deer (D. dama)  Persian fallow deer (D. mesopotamica)
Hydropotinae
Hydropotes
Water deer (H. inermis)
Capreolinae
Odocoileus
White-tailed deer (O. virginianus)  Mule deer (O. hemionus)
Blastocerus
Marsh Deer (B. dichotomus)
Ozotoceros
Pampas deer (O. bezoarticus)
Mazama
Red Brocket (M. americana)  Small Red Brocket (M. bororo)  Merida Brocket (M. bricenii)  Dwarf Brocket (M. chunyi)  Gray Brocket (M. gouazoubira)  Pygmy Brocket (M. nana)  Fair Brocket (M. ochroleuca)  Yucatan Brown Brocket (M. pandora)  Little Red Brocket (M. rufina)  Central American Red Brocket (M. temama)
Pudu
Northern Pudu (P. mephistophiles)  Pud (P. pudu)
Hippocamelus
Taruca (H. antisensis)  South Andean Deer (H. bisulcus)
Capreolus
Roe Deer (C. capreolus)  Siberian Roe Deer (C. pygargus)
Rangifer
Reindeer (R. tarandus)
Alces
Moose (A. alces)
 
Family Bovidae
Cephalophinae
Cephalophus
Abbott's Duiker (C. spadix)  Aders' Duiker (C. adersi)  Bay Duiker (C. dorsalis)  Black Duiker (C. niger)  Black-fronted Duiker (C. nigrifrons)  Blue Duiker (C. monticola)  Harvey's Duiker (C. harveyi)  Jentink's Duiker (C. jentinki)  Maxwell's Duiker (C. maxwellii)  Red Forest Duiker (C. natalensis)  Ogilby's Duiker (C. ogilbyi)  Peters's Duiker (C. callipygus)  Red-flanked Duiker (C. rufilatus)  Ruwenzori Duiker (C. rubidis)  Weyns's Duiker (C. weynsi)  White-bellied Duiker (C. leucogaster)  Yellow-backed Duiker (C. Sylvicultor)  Zebra Duiker (C. zebra)
Sylvicapra
Common Duiker (S. grimmia)
Hippotraginae
Hippotragus
Roan Antelope (H. equinus)  Sable Antelope (H. niger)
Oryx
East African Oryx (O. beisa)  Scimitar Oryx (O. dammah)  Gemsbok (O. gazella)  Arabian Oryx (O. leucoryx)
Addax
Addax (A. nasomaculatus)
Reduncinae
Kobus
Upemba Lechwe (K. anselli)  Waterbuck (K. ellipsiprymnus)  Kob (K. kob)  Lechwe (K. leche)  Nile Lechwe (K. megaceros)  Puku (K. vardonii)
Redunca
Southern Reedbuck (R. arundinum)  Mountain Reedbuck (R. fulvorufula)  Bohor Reedbuck (R. redunca)
Aepycerotinae
Aepyceros
Impala (A. melampus)
Peleinae
Pelea
Grey Rhebok (P. capreolus)
Alcelaphinae
Beatragus
Hirola (B. hunteri)
Damaliscus
Korrigum (D. korrigum)  Common Tsessebe (D. lunatus)  Bontebok (D. pygargus)  Bangweulu Tsessebe (D. superstes)
Alcelaphus
Hartebeest (A. buselaphus)  Red Hartebeest (A. caama)  Lichtenstein's Hartebeest (A. lichtensteinii)
Connochaetes
Black Wildebeest (C. gnou)  Blue Wildebeest (C. taurinus)
Pantholopinae
Pantholops
Tibetan antelope (P. hodgsonii)
Caprinae
Large subfamily listed below
Bovinae
Large subfamily listed below
Antilopinae
Large subfamily listed below
 
Family Bovidae (subfamily Caprinae)
Ammotragus
Barbary Sheep (A. lervia)
Budorcas
Takin (B. taxicolor)
Capra
Wild goat (C. aegagrus)  West Caucasian Tur (C. caucasia)  East Caucasian Tur (C. cylindricornis)  Markhor (C. falconeri)  Alpine Ibex (C. ibex)  Nubian Ibex (C. nubiana)  Spanish Ibex (C. pyrenaica)  Siberian Ibex (C. sibirica)  Walia Ibex (C. walie)
Hemitragus
Nilgiri Tahr (H. hylocrius)  Arabian Tahr (H. jayakari)  Himalayan Tahr (H. jemlahicus)
Naemorhedus
Red Goral (N. baileyi)  Japanese Serow (N. crispus)  Long-tailed Goral (N. caudatus)  Gray Goral (N. goral)  Mainland Serow (N. sumatraensis)  Taiwan Serow (N. swinhoei)
Oreamnos
Mountain goat (O. americanus)
Ovibos
Muskox (O. moschatus)
Ovis
Argali (O. ammon)  Domestic sheep (O. aries)  Bighorn Sheep (O. canadensis)  Dall Sheep (O. dalli)  Mouflon (O. musimon)  Snow sheep (O. nivicola)  Urial (O. orientalis)
Pseudois
Bharal (P. nayaur)  Dwarf Blue Sheep (P. schaeferi)
Rupicapra
Pyrenean Chamois (R. pyrenaica)  Chamois (R. rupicapra)
 
Family Bovidae (subfamily Bovinae)
Boselaphini
Tetracerus
Four-horned Antelope (T. quadricornis)
Boselaphus
Nilgai (B. tragocamelus)
Bovini
Bubalus
Water Buffalo (B. bubalus)  Lowland Anoa (B. depressicornis)  Mountain Anoa (B. quarlesi)  Tamaraw (B. mindorensis)
Bos
Banteng (B. javanicus)  Gaur (B. gaurus)  Yak (B. mutus)  Cattle (B. taurus)  Kouprey (B. sauveli)
Pseudonovibos
Kting Voar (P. spiralis)
Pseudoryx
Saola (P. nghetinhensis)
Syncerus
African Buffalo (S. caffer)
Bison
American Bison (B. bison)  Wisent (B. bonasus)
Strepsicerotini
Tragelaphus
Sitatunga (T. spekeii)  Nyala (T. angasii)  Bushbuck (T. scriptus)  Mountain Nyala (T. buxtoni)  Lesser Kudu (T. imberbis)  Greater Kudu (T. strepsiceros)  Bongo (T. eurycerus)
Taurotragus
Common Eland (T. oryx)  Giant Eland (T. derbianus)
 
Family Bovidae (subfamily Antilopinae)
Antilopini
Ammodorcas
Dibatag (A. clarkei)
Antidorcas
Springbok (A. marsupialis)
Antilope
Blackbuck (A. cervicapra)
Gazella
Mountain Gazelle (G. gazella)  Neumann's Gazelle (G. erlangeri)  Speke's Gazelle (G. spekei)  Dorcas Gazelle (G. dorcas)  Saudi Gazelle (G. saudiya)  Chinkara (G. bennettii)  Thomson's Gazelle (G. thomsonii)  Red-fronted Gazelle (G. rufifrons)  Dama Gazelle (G. dama)  Grant's Gazelle (G. granti)  Soemmerring's Gazelle (G. soemmerringii)  Cuvier's Gazelle (G. cuvieri)  Rhim Gazelle (G. leptoceros)  Goitered Gazelle (G. subgutturosa)
Litocranius
Gerenuk (L. walleri)
Procapra
Mongolian gazelle (P. gutturosa)  Goa (P. picticaudata)  Przewalski's Gazelle (P. przewalskii)
Saigini
Pantholops
Tibetan antelope (P. hodgsonii)
Saiga
Saiga Antelope (S. tatarica)
Neotragini
Dorcatragus
Beira (D. megalotis)
Madoqua
Gnther's Dik-dik (M. guentheri)  Kirk's Dik-dik (M. kirkii)  Silver Dik-dik (M. piacentinii)  Salt's Dik-dik (M. saltiana)
Neotragus
Bates's Pygmy Antelope (N. batesi)  Suni (N. moschatus)  Royal Antelope (N. pygmaeus)
Oreotragus
Klipspringer (O. oreotragus)
Ourebia
Oribi (O. ourebi)
Raphicerus
Steenbok (R. campestris)  Cape Grysbok (R. melanotis)  Sharpe's Grysbok (R. sharpei)
 
Suborder Suina
Suidae
Babyrousa
Buru Babirusa (B. babyrussa)  North Sulawesi Babirusa (B. celebensis)  Togian Babirusa (B. togeanensis)
Hylochoerus
Giant forest hog (H. meinertzhageni)
Phacochoerus
Desert Warthog (P. aethiopicus)  Warthog (P. africanus)
Porcula
Pygmy Hog (P. salvania)
Potamochoerus
Bushpig (P. larvatus)  Red River Hog (P. porcus)
Sus
Palawan Bearded Pig (S. ahoenobarbus)  Bearded Pig (S. barbatus)  Indo-chinese Warty Pig (S. bucculentus)  Visayan Warty Pig (S. cebifrons)  Celebes Warty Pig (S. celebensis)  Flores Warty Pig (S. heureni)  Oliver's Warty Pig (S. oliveri)  Philippine Warty Pig (S. philippensis)  Boar (S. scrofa)  Timor Warty Pig (S. timoriensis)  Javan Pig (S. verrucosus)
Tayassuidae
Tayassu
White-lipped Peccary (T. pecari)
Catagonus
Chacoan Peccary (C. wagneri)
Pecari
Collared Peccary (P. tajacu)  Giant Peccary (P. maximus)
 
Suborder Tylopoda
Camelidae
Lama
Llama (L. glama)  Guanaco (L. guanicoe)
Vicugna
Vicua (V. vicugna)  Alpaca (V. pacos)
Camelus
Dromedary (C. dromedarius)  Bactrian Camel (C. bactrianus)
 
Cetartiodactyla (unranked clade, higher than Artiodactyla)
Hippopotamidae
Hippopotamus
Hippopotamus (H. amphibius)
Choeropsis
Pygmy Hippopotamus (C. liberiensis)
Categories: IUCN Red List near threatened species | Deer | Mammals of Argentina | Mammals of Bolivia | Mammals of Brazil | Mammals of Paraguay | Mammals of Uruguay | Megafauna of South America
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